Visiting card plane

 
 

Impressed by a website of visiting card (55 x 91 mm) paper airplane , I'm trying to make mini card plane too. Small size plane is not gliding well like large size plane, because aerodynamics parameter is different and drag of viscosity is relatively large. However small size plane is relatively strong, so more unique shape plane could be make.
 

Seagull 1

Seabirds should fly long distance, so they have high performance, large aspect ratio wings. This small paper seagull have simple structure, and fly well.

 Drawing of Seagull1(gif file)      set of 8 (pdf file)

For visiting card (name card) size, please print gif file at 200dpi.

How to make Seagull 1

Download the drawing and print it on card stock. Cut the paper according to the thick line.  Fold up as dash and dot line " _ . _ . _" , and fold down as dash line " - - - - " Dihedral angle of wings is 10 degrees. Fold tail fin as V shape (45 degrees). It works as holizontal and vertical tail wings. Bend up back edge of main wings tip slightly.
 

Dragonfly

Dragonfly had already been flying at several hundred million years ago.  Perhaps no evolution is needed to fly well any longer for them. 


 

Drawing of Dragonfly(gif file)      set of 8 (pdf file)



How to make Dragonfly

Download the drawing and print it on card stock. For visiting card (name card) size, please print gif file at 200dpi. Cut the paper according to the thick line.  Fold up as dash and dot line " _ . _ . _" , and fold down as dash line " - - - - " Dihedral angle of front wings is 15 degrees. Back wings ("Dragnfly" and logo are printed.) should be turn 180 degree and have no dihedral angle.


Bat

If it continues with a bird and an insect, the representation bat which flies in the sky by the mammals too cannot but participate.
A bat is the group which counts 1000 of 4000 sorts of mammals which survive in a their present location ball, and is very prosperous in the number of seeds, and 33 of about 100 sorts of mammals on land are things with bats also in Japan.
Although five corners are located on the outside of wings, it is equivalent to five fingers, respectively.

As a paper airplane, although it is a non-tail (non-horizontal stabilizer) and the ambitious work ? in a swept-forward wing, you may be stabilized, and it flies.



Bat


 


Drawing of Bat  set of 8 (pdf file)
 

 

How to make Bat

A plan is downloaded and it prints on card paper.
Two sheets could be horizontally located in a line, and it united with the width of A4.
It clips along a thick line.
The body makes correctly each crease (a dotted line is a mountain fold and an alternate long and short dash line is a valley fold) by ruler beforehand.
The front part of the body is inserted in inside, and it sticks rectangular parts (a balance weight and nose-of-an-airplane cover combination) so that a nose of an airplane may be covered.
Wings attach the dihedral angle of about 15 degrees, and twist the trailing edge of the outside of wings downward slightly (an outside angle of attack is enlarged slightly).
The center of gravity is designed only under the weight of paper to suit.


 

Frying fish

Fish also flies to a bird, an insect and the mammals in line. After accelerating in the water to escape from a big fish, the flying fish be distinctive in the air, and do the pectoral which developed, the tail and fins with the long lower half part are left in the water and more are accelerated, and, several, 100 m, one in the air, it planes. There is also a kind for which a ventral is used like a level tail assembly. This business card airplane often also flies at high speed.


Flying Fish



Drawing of Flying Fish  Set of 8 (pdf file)

 
Way of making flying fish.
I download a plan and print in a card paper of A4. 2 pdf files were placed on the side and it was added to the width of A4.
It's clipped along a thick line. A body can thrust at the respective folds (by a dotted line, by a mountain collapse and dash-dot, valley collapse) with a ruler correctly beforehand. A front of a body is inserted inside, and a rectangular part (a balance weight and a nose of a plane, cover both use) is stuck so that I may cover a nose of a plane. A wing is a separateness of left and right. One is made reverse, and it's pasted together so that a thin arrow (centerline of a wing) may be.
Even if it isn't put, the dihedral angle is good. A trailing edge in both ends of a wing is twisted up to the top a little. I'm designing so that the center of gravity may agree on only the weight of the paper.


 
 

Pteranodon

An ancient creature also appeared as the representative of a reptile who flies in the air. Pteranpdon is one kind of pterodactyls which were ruling the sky approximately 80,000,000 years ago. A dinosaur was one kind of different reptiles, and a pterodactyl was ruling the sky in the Mesozoic era. It's different from the present bird, light wing made from a film of skin (It was similar to a bat.) was expanded by a bone equivalent to an arm and the ring finger, and I was flying in the air. Much kind of fossil is found, but one of the most famous seeds is Pteranodon in the pterodactyl, and a big sharp comb is the feature. When a wing is opened, the big creature who also reaches 7-9m, but it's thought that weighed only15 about 20 kilogram. One on the sea, 100km also planes and it's said that they were catching a fish by a toothless bill. It's said that there are an actual pterodactyl and the seed in which I had the performance which equals a glider for present-day plays (lift to drag ratio). Mostly, just beside, it's the tail assembly structure without which spreads, with the paper airplane which becomes stable, and it flies very well so that it doesn't seem in spite of business card size. There are no tails like this fuselage (vertical tail) in still real Pteranodon, but the paper airplane becomes unstable and doesn't fly without fuselage.I think this is the smallest paper Pteranodon which flies well, ever in the world.

Pteranodon
 


Drawing of Pteranodon set of 8 (pdf file)

 

Way of making Pteranodon
Download a drawing and print in a card paper of A4. It's clipped along a thick line. A body can thrust at the respective folds (by a dotted line, by a mountain collapse and dash-dot, valley collapse) with a ruler correctly beforehand. A front of a body is inserted inside, and an eye and beak's drawn part (a balance weight and a nose of a plane, cover both use) are stuck so that It may cover a nose of a plane. A wing is a separateness of left and right. It's pasted together so that a thin line (center line of a wing) may be identical. Even if a dihedral angle isn't put, it's good, or maybe it may be put on a little. A trailing edge in a part of 2 triangles behind the place near the center of the wing (It's equivalent to a foot of Pteranodon.) is twisted up to the top a little. Surprisingly, pitch stability of the structure is kept tail assembly-lessly only with this. I'm designing so that the center of gravity may agree on only the weight of the paper.

Flight of the ancient Pteranodon to examine from a visiting card Pteranodon    -Pteranodon flew at 8m/s (18mph)-     original article by Akihiko Suzuki
As Pteranodon of the visiting card airplane flew very well, I decided to imagine the flight of the Pteranodon 80 million years ago from the flight of small paper Pteranodon.
It is necessary for lift to match with the weight so that a bird and an airplane do a straight line flight. When lift refers to the relations of the airspeed in an expression, it is L=CLρV2S/2 (L: lift, CL: lift coefficient, ρ: air density, V: airspeed, S:  wing area), and the lift is proportional to the square of the airspeed. It becomes V= √ 2L/SCLρ when I transform an expression, and, as for the airspeed, it is revealed that I am proportional to √ (the square root) of the body weight per wing area namely the wing loading  L/S, the level flight per wing area if a lift coefficient and air density are the same as it matches with body weight. (in the case of gliding, the lift is the ingredient which is perpendicular to the heading among gravity exactly, but is the approximately same as gravity when lift drag ratio is good. (98.6% more gravitational than the Pythagorean theorem at lift drag ratio 6:1) When measured the airspeed of the visiting card Pteranodon which made with paper of 209 g/m2, the airspeed was 3.75m/s as flew in 6.0m in 1.6 seconds. The weight of paper Pteranodon is 0.76g and the wing area are 14.0cm2 so L/S is 0.054g/cm2 , it is  0.54 kg/m2 at a unit used by airplane. I decided to compare it whether relations of the L/S to this airspeed were similar  in the real birds.  According to the data of site "Huh the Bird" http://akaitori.tobiiro.jp/yokumen.html, which attracted the weight of many birds, a wing area, loading, air speeds, as for the gull, the L/S for 0.328 g/cm2 that is 3.28 kg/m2 as for 9.2m/s of airspeed. Wandering albatross has the L/S 1.40 g/cm2 (14.0 kg/m2) and airspeed is 19.2m/s. With the airspeed and L/S of the visiting card Pteranodon, it calculated that the gull fly at 3.75m/s * √ 3.28/0.54 = 9.24m/s, as for the wandering albatross fly at 3.75 * √ 14.0/0.54 = 19.1m/s.  These calculated value from airspeed, L/S of paper Preranodon and a real airspeed of birds agree surprisingly, and it may be said that "the visiting card Pteranodon coefficient" is proper. It is thought that the Pteranodon glides like a gull and an albatross over the sea and lived, and it is thought that the same coefficient comes under it. Well, it is thought that the Pteranodon was wing open long 7-9m, around 15-20 kg in weight (Wikipedia). I take the interval, and, as for the wing area, 5285 of the square increases twice as much if it was 8m, 17.5 kg if the wing open length is 72.7 times similar figure of the visiting card Pteranodon (11cm), but the visiting card Pteranodon is doing aspect ratio slightly small (8.64) to keep stability and strength, and the wing area is calculated with 7.1m2 at 5,075 times as the real Pteranodon is aspect ratio around 9.0 (Wikipedia). The L/S becomes 2.46 kg/m2. It is estimated that I calculate an airspeed of the ancient Pteranodon to 3.75 * √ 2.46/0.54 = 8.0m/s, speed per hour with 29km/h (18mph). A Pteranodon was a big creature, but would glide more slowly than a current gull as it was a very light body for size in comparison with current birds. As an airspeed is small, it might be relatively easy to take off, but it is thought that it is drained leeward when slightly strong wind blows and does not push it forward. But it becomes difficult to keep altitude only by gliding as there is not an ascending current of air to produce by a wave when windless. Would the Mesozoic sea where a Pteranodon lived be the calm climate that moderate wind blew through one year? Still, I think it to think about structure and strength so that an estimate of the weight is too light.


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